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No.66 November, 1962 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



No.66 November, 1962 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

These Reports are for Intra-Departmental Information 
and Not for Publication 



Fish and Wildlife Branch 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/resourcemannov1962onta 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 66 November, 1962 



Page 



The Survey of Idle and Abandoned Farm Land in 

the Tweed Forest District, 1961, - by W. D. Tieman 1 

Fish and Game on Agreement Forests (As Seen 

by a Forester). - by R. J. K. Murphy 5 

The Lake Penage Deer Yard's 1962 Spring Deer 

Survey with Observations on Habitat Changes in 

the Area. - by D. R. Hughson 9 

1962 Winter Aerial Census of Woodland Caribou 
( Rangifer tarandus ) in the Pickle Crow-Armstrong 
and Kowkash - Martin Falls Regions. 

- by B. H. Gibson 19 

Lynx Live Trapping Project in White River District. 

- by E. J. Mitchell 25 

Wood Duck Banding, Pembroke District, 1961. 

- by W. R. Catton 34 

Duck Banding-Gogama District, 1961. 

- by Bruce Turner 40 

French River Angling, 1961. - by J. M. Sheppard 46 

Taxonomy of Lake Nipissing Pike-Perch. 

- by Wilson Sinclair 57 

Some Observations on a Winter Creel Census on Two 
Lakes in the Killarney Area, 1962. 

- by L. E. Drolet 61 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



SURVEY OF IDLE AND ABANDONED FARM 

LAND IN THE TWEED FOREST DISTRICT 
1961 

by 
W. Do Tieman 
Timber Management Forester 

Abstract 

As a companion study to, and adopting the same 
survey procedure as the Survey of Production from 
Private Woodlands in Tweed District , the extent 
of abandoned and idle cleared land was estimated 
to be 7° 5$ of all patented lands. Based on the 
judgment of owners, 90% (about 207 thousand acres) 
of lands not otherwise in use could be planted. 



Purpose 

For some time , the problem of increasing areas of aban- 
doned and idle farm land in Eastern Ontario has occupied the 
attention and concern of government agencies responsible for 
resource management and economic development. Because much of 
this non-productive agricultural land has shown varying degrees 
of potential for timber and fish and wildlife production, as 
well as recreation and water conservation, the Department of 
Lands and Forests has been particularly interested in this 
problem. 

The survey described herein was carried out to deter- 
mine the extent of abandoned and idle farm land in the Tweed 
Forest District. In addition, an attempt was made to determine 
how much of this non-productive farm land might be considered 
suitable for growing trees. 

Method 

During the summer of 1961 , the Tweed District Staff 
of the Department of Lands and Forests, in co-operation with 
the Federal Department of Forestry and the Dominion Bureau of 
Statistics, carried out a survey of the production of forest 
products cut from privately owned woodlands in the Tweed Dist- 
rict. The survey of idle farm lands was carried out as a supple- 
mentary part of that survey. The method was designed by the 
Dominion Bureau of Statistics and applied to both surveys. 

The Tweed District was broken into five strata or 
types based on broad land -use patterns. 

Strata 1. Predominantly agricultural area along the 
north shore of Lake Ontario in the south 
part of the Tweed District; heavy soils 
over limestone. 



- 2 - 

Strata 2. A mixed farming, forestry and recreational 

area of low productivity; shallow soils over 
granite . 

Strata 3. Predominantly agricultural area along the 
Ottawa River; relatively deep soils over 
granite . 

Strata 4. Predominantly forested area; medium to shal- 
low soils over granite . 

Strata 5. Mixed farming and forestry area along the 

Madawaska River Valley; medium to deep sandy 
soils over granite. 

Random blocks of patented land of varying sizes were 
selected within each Strata. All resident landowners within each 
selected block were contacted by Department of Lands and Forests 
Staff. Absentee owners were contacted through the mail by The 
Federal Department of Forestry. 

Only those persons contacted by Department of Lands 
and Forests Staff were questioned concerning idle and abandoned 
farm land. A sample questionnaire is attached. 



Strata 



Table 1 

Total 
Land 
Area (1 



Sampling Intensity 



Estimated $ 
of Patented 
Land ( 2 ) 



Estimated 
Area of Pat- 
ented Land (2) 



Area of 
Patented 
Land Sampled 



$ 
Sampled 



1 
2 
3 

4 

5 
Total 
Tweed 
District 



1,192,069 
717, 10S 
326,659 

1,380,286 

610,760 
4,226,784 



100$ 
90$ 

100$ 
45$ 
50$ 



1,192,069 
645,392 
326,659 
630,076 
305,380 

3,099,576 



42,527 
24,509 
12,853 
10,811 
20,555 
111,255 



3.6 
3 = 8 
3.9 
1.7 
6.7 



(1) Figures report in F.R.I. Survey 1957- 

(2) All land except Crown and Federal lands. 

Results 

Using a ratio of total patented land area sampled to 
total patented land in each strata, it is estimated from the 
survey that there are some 230,000 acres of cleared farm land 
which is not being used for farming, in the Tweed Forest Dist- 
rict. This figure includes completely abandoned farm land as 
well as idle farm land on active farms. This figure does not 
include pasture lands presently being used as such. 



: - ■ • 



- 3 - 

On the basis of the owners judgement as to the suita- 
bility of this idle land for the planting and growing of trees, 
it is estimated that some 90% of this area of idle farm land is 
suitable for forest production . Because of the common miscon- 
ception that trees can be planted and grown successfully on 
almost any poor soil, this figure is likely high. 



Table 2 Survey Estimates 



Strata 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4- 
5. 



Estimated Area 

of Patented Land Cleared Land 
( acres) Not being used 
for Farming 



1,192,069 
645,392 

326,659 
630,076 
305,330 



Total 3,099,596 

Tweed 

District 



( acres F 



43,033 
50,691 
30,823 
61,021 
45,120 

230,743 



% of 

Total Pat 
Land Area 



3.6$ 

7.1% 
9.4fo 

9.7$ 

14.8% 



7. 



Plantable 

Land 

( acres) 

36,020 

43,344 
29,380 

59,389 
38,628 

206,761 



% of 

Cleared 

Land 



83 06% 
S5 . 5% 
95.3% 
97.3% 
85.6# 

90.0% 



Summary 

From a survey carried out in 1961, it is estimated that 
7-5% of all patented land in the Tweed District is cleared farm 
land which is not being used for farming purposes . Of this total 
of 230,000 acres, 90% might be considered suitable for forest pro- 
duction. 



- 4 - 

SUPPLEMENTARY QUESTIONNAIRE 

Survey of Forest Production from Private Land in Ontario 

1, Total area of land acres, (from Form I) „ 

2o Forested acres acres, (from Form I)* 

3» Has any portion of the land been cleared for agriculture 
at any time? 

Yes No 



4o If "Yes" under (3) s how many acres? 



5« How many acres of this cleared land are not being 
used for farming purposes? 

acres. 

6o How many acres of the cleared land which is not being 
used for farming purposes could be planted with trees? 

acres. 



7« Have any trees been planted on the cleared land which 
is not being used for farming purposes? 

Yes No 

If "yes", how many trees? 



(For Tweed District Office Use Only) 



- 5 - 

FISH AND GAME ON AGREEMENT FORESTS 
(as seen by a forester) 

by 
R. J. K. Murphy 

Abstract 

The 160,000 acres of Agreement Forests in Southern 
Ontario offer an opportunity to demonstrate multiple 
use management and at the same time alleviate some of 
the increasing demand for areas on which hunting and 
fishing may be enjoyed. Several suggestions are 
advanced based on the author r s experience as a fores- 
ter in the Lake Erie District during the period 1949-1960, 
and on a lifetime interest in trout fishing and small- 
game hunting. 

In Southern Ontario, almost all, but not quite all, of the 
land is privately owned. The landowner (except for very few 
who charge for hunting or fishing privileges) can derive no 
revenue in the way of grants or tax relief for providing good 
wildlife cover. In spite of an increase in the number of biolog- 
ists, the improvement of the technical level of conservation offi- 
cers, and establishment of Watershed Conservation Authorities, the 
game habitat in Southern Ontario has deteriorated during this last 
decade. Suitable environment is being constantly destroyed by 
enlarging agricultural fields, chemically spraying fence rows, 
converting rail and stump fences to wire or electric, pasturing 
woodlots and by specialization in one crop economies (i.e., tob- 
acco). In addition, more and more private land is being posted 
each year. 

Resource managers realize we can transport timber products 
from Northern and Central Ontario to Southern Ontario, but we 
cannot move wildlife habitat. We can, however, create, improve, 
protect, renew, or prolong those conditions which will enhance 
fish and game production on areas over which we have influence. 

The largest acreage of publicly-owned land in Southern Onta- 
rio is the Agreement Forest area, Planting open fields, exclud- 
ing livestock and improvement cutting, has unintentionally and 
automatically improved conditions for wildlife, but little planned 
specific action takes place toward this goal. (Exception is an 
area adjoining Luther Marsh. ) 

On the 160,000 acres of agreement forests there are four 
broad situations where habitat improvement could be part of the 
overall management plan. 

(1) Large areas of protection forest, such as much of the Bruce 
Peninsula or Moira Forest, which does not warrant silvicultural 
expenditure for timber production at present. 



- 6 - 

(2) Small areas in productive forest tracts which are too 
wet, too steep, too dry, too small, or too heavily covered 
with non-commercial vegetation to provide an adequate return 
as a forestry investment. 

(3) Areas or facilities within the forest used for access or 
protection purposes. 

(4) The productive forest area. 

Possible Projects and Scope 

The first set of circumstances are areas of quite wet or 
thin soil sites. Many foresters would like to see these areas 
managed mainly if not solely for wildlife product ion . While 
inventory is not complete it is estimated that there are at 
least 16,000 acres in blocks of 100 acres or more which must be 
at the present time considered protection forest. In a recent 
land acquisition by Big Creek Authority a 100-acre area was pur- 
chased and placed under agreement, although it has virtually no 
forest production potential. However, most of the acreage pur- 
chased by this Authority is productive. These areas of consider- 
able protection forest may occur in most agreement forests, but 
the most significant are in the Upper Thames, Grand, Bruce, Vic- 
toria, Napanee , Moira and Grenville forests. 

The second situation exists on virtually all forests. The 
amount of land available for mainly fish and wildlife production 
might vary from less than 5% on York County to over 20% on many 
other forests. If 10% is taken as an average, then 12,000 acres 
could be devoted to habitat improvement . 

Suggested projects are as follows: 

(A) Planting small fields or seasonally flooded areas to 
cereal crops and leaving same unharvested. 

(B) Simply leaving some difficult sites in the present 
scrub-shrub-pioneer forest vegetation. 

(C) Planting suitable shrubs or trees which provide a 
food supply in areas too small to constitute a poten- 
tial forest stand. 

The third class of projects would be used for wildlife hab- 
itat, facilities which are on the forests for other purposes. 
Possibilities are: 

(A) Enlarging or adapting existing ponds to the point 

where they would provide useful waterfowl, fish or 
muskrat environment . 

(B) Enpounding water in ravines. 

(C) Planting currently worked fireguards to an annual plant 
like buckwheat. (Buckwheat planted July 1 should remain 
green until frost.) 



- 7 - 

(D) Plant suitable dwarf deciduous shrubs on temporarily- 
abandoned roads or fireguards. 

(E) Stream improvement. 

(F) Artificial food, cover, or nesting accommodation. 

The opportunities for the above type of project vary greatly 
from forest to forest. Pond sites can be found on most of the 
high water table properties in Erie and Huron Districts. Three 
natural kettle ponds and four dug ponds exist on York Forest. 

The drier sand plains, interlobate moraines and shallow 
soil areas would offer little possibility for pondwork. 

Ravines with continuous or seasonal stream-flow are common 
on most of the till soils, and wherever the sand soils are not too 
deep. For example, four dams have been constructed on York County, 
and three other places exist where one-half to one acre impound- 
ments could be built without serious damage to surrounding timber. 
Naturally the acre-foot cost and possible timber destruction must 
be considered before estimating the number of opportunities that 
exist for impoundments . 

Fireguard networks are maintained through most of the sand 
plain and interlobate moraines. For example, York County has 
about 40 miles of fireguard. As the plantations grow older, inter- 
ior fireguards are often not cultivated. 1 - 2% of most productive 
forests could be considered roads or fireguards. 

Trout streams exist on one Big Creek Property in Erie District, 
on a few tracts within the Ganaraska watershed and on several prop- 
erties in Simcoe District. In Grey and Bruce counties over 20 
different tracts contain or adjoin some 15 miles of trout water. 
Some of these streams need no improvement, while others could pro- 
duce more or larger fish with work being done on them. 

Creating artificial conditions, such as feeding stations, 
pheasant release pens, wood duck nests, etc., might depend largely 
on the interests of the local caretaker, the local conservation 
officer, and the proximity of the property to the home of the 
officer concerned. It is sufficient to say we do have publicly- 
owned property where these activities could take place. 

The fourth aspe ct is to modify woods operations in activity, 
time, or extent to improve or prolong wildlife habitat. 

Some actions could be : 

(a) Do stand improvement work in late autumn so that browse 
(from tops) will be available for food during winter months. 

(b) Spread harvest operations on an annual basis so that regen- 
eration and y? tops n browse will be available on a continu- 
ous basis. 



- 8 - 

(c) When it is debatable which way a stand should be treated 
from a silvicultural consideration, the decision could 
be made in favour of the method which will enhance hab- 
itat . 

There are some reasonable objections to devoting funds to en- 
hance Agreement Forests for public hunting: 

(1) It may be felt the acreages involved are too limited to war- 
rant attention. 

(2) The increased use of area could lead to increased fire haz- 
ard, theft, and vandalism. 

(3) There might be a drop in overall timber production. 

(4) Confusion or controversy might ensue regarding what division 
should supply funds and what expenditures are a legitimate charge 
to the forest. 

Some benefits that should accrue by specifically improving 
fish and wildlife habitat are : 

(1) Increased hunting and fishing. 

(2) Interest stimulated in forestry by a larger cross-section of 
the public. 

(3) A place available in Southern Ontario where biologists can 
actually try out ideas and set an example for interested private 
owners . 

(4) Greater interest in forestry and property protection might 
be taken by conservation officers. 

(5) With the increase in posted lands, an answer can be given 
to the hunters when they ask, "Where can we hunt?" 

(6) If hunting or fishing improved considerably on these areas, 
conservation officers could concentrate their efforts here. Much 
time must be spent now patrolling areas where game and hunters are 
scarce . 

(7) Some land on which it is quite uneconomic to practise for- 
estry would be withdrawn from same, and thus forestry expenditure 
would be reduced. 

Some of the above thoughts are the result of: 

(A) Experience as a conservation officer, as well as a fores- 
ter, and thus having direct contact with hunters. 

(B) Partaking in (1) upland game hunting, (2) rabbit hunting, 
and (3) trout fishing on agreement forests. 

(C) Having the acquaintance and co-operation of Fish and Wild- 
life personnel in Erie District for several years. 



- 9 - 

THE LAKE PENAGE DEER YARD'S 1962 SPRING DEER SURVEY 
WITH OBSERVATIONS ON HABITAT CHANGES IN THE AREA 

by 
D. R. Hughson 
Conservation Officer, Sudbury District 



Abstract 

From a survey carried out in the Penage Lake deer 
yards it was calculated that the 1961-62 wintering 
deer density was 16. 5 deer per square mile and the 
winter mortality was 3.2 dead deer per square mile. 
A marked reduction of the 1961-62 winter deer range 
over that occupied by deer in 195S-59 was evident 
in this area. A review of the early logging history 
suggests a parallel in the changes observed in the 
deer herd. Three experimental areas were cut as a 
habitat improvement project using voluntary assist- 
ance. A "cut and push' system provided immediate 
browse which was used almost at once by the wintering 
herds. It was found that 3 man-days are required to 
cut a one acre area. 



PURPOSE 

In r^arch of 1961 the writer, having completed several 
cruises of the Lake Penage Deer Yards, submitted a short report 
of his findings and a personal evaluation of the deer situation for 
this area to the Sudbury District Fish and Wildlife office. This 
report was subsequently forwarded to Maple where it was given 
critical consideration. 

It was pointed out in the reply from Maple that more facts 
were needed to substantiate the writer's opinions and estimates. 
This report is designed to supply some of the missing facts and 
figures. 

THE AREA 

The 1961 report covered the townships of Atlee , Bevin, 
Caen, Dieppe, Gos ''sn and Sale (Map 1). The 1961-62 winter range, 
as mapped in February, 1962, falls primarily within the townships 
of Caen and Goschen (Map 2). During the winter of 1953-59 the 
wintering concentration was located in Dieppe, Bevin and Sale, as 
well as Caen and Goschen (Map 2). 



- 10 - 

The overstory of the 1961-62 yarding area consists of 
red and hard maple, ironwood and a scattering of conifer. The under- 
story is typically striped, red and hard maple, with an abundance 
of hazel. Some balsam fir and white spruce regeneration is also 
present. The topography is normally rolling ridges covered to 
depths of up to six inches of leaf litter and glacial till. About 
5 per cent of the area is swamp. 

While map 2 suggests that there may be as many as four 
concentration areas in Caen and Goschen townships this pattern is 
entirely superficial. This report will deal separately with the 
three individual units as surveyed and with all three units as a 
composite wintering area. 

Forty-one land use permits were issued in 1961 for hunt 
camps in the Lake Penage area. Approximately 300 private camps are 
located on Lake Penage and another 30 on adjacent waters. One 
hundred of the Lake Penage camps are used as deer hunt camps, as 
are the 30 camps. Also, in the area are three commercial camps 
that accommodate deer hunters. 

METHODS USED 

This survey was carried out with the assistance of seven 
Royal Canadian Air Force Ground Search and Rescue men from the Radar 
Station at Falconbridge . 

The methods used in the survey and the formulae used in 
the report are those outlined by Mulligan and Trodd (I960). 
Fifteen chain intervals were allowed between crotesing plot lines. 
A wintering period of 120 days is used in the calculations. The 
deer moved into the area in mid- December and out by mid- April. 

All evidence of moose and wolves was recorded by the 
survey crews . 

SURVEY RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS 

Map 3 provides the survey area on a larger scale with 
the cruise lines and units marked in. 

Unit 1 



3$ crotesing plots were examined and 2.4 miles of lines 
were searched for deer carcasses. 

Seven crotesings or an average of .184 crotesings per plot 
and no carcasses were found in Unit 1. 

.184 x 100 x 640 = 7.7 deer/sq. mi. 

12.7 x 120 

Unit 2 

Ten crotesings were found on 36 plots producing an average 
of .277 per plot. No dead deer were located along 2.3 miles of 
lines. 

.277 x 100 x 640 - 11.4 deer/sq. mi. 

12.7 x 120 



- 11 - 



Unit 3 



A total of 61 crotesing plots averaging .590 crotesing 
per plot were examined and 3.8 miles of line searched for dead deer 
in Unit 3« One deer carcass (that of a year old animal) was located 
in this area, 

.590 x 100 x 640 _ 24. 8 deer/sq. mi. 
12.7 x 120 

1 x 640 _ . , , 

91,2 7 °0 deer carcasses/sq. mi. 

Three Units Combined 

One hundred and thirty-five crotesing plots yielded a 
total of 53 crotesings or an average of .392 per plot. One dead deer 
was found in 202.5 acres of survey strips. 

,392 x 100 x 640 ,, c , / 

12.7 x 120 = 16.5 deer/sq. mi. 

2 Q2 I = 3.2 deer carcasses/sq. mi. 

The combined area of the three units is 1.80 square miles. 
This area represents about 50 per cent of the total Lake Penage winter 
range as mapped from the air in February, 1962, and examined by foot 
and snow toboggan during the winter months. While there are larger 
yarding areas to the south, it is the opinion of the writer, collabo- 
rated by information received from Conservation Officer L. E. Drolet 
on deer movements that the Killarney Mountains provide a topographical 
boundary of deer range. This then means that the yards shown in Map 
2 represents the winter range for the deer supplying the Lake Penage 
hunters. It should also be noted from Map 2 that there has been a 
considerable constriction of the range used by deer during the period, 
since the winter of 1958-59. 

A total of six moose crotesings were found on the deer 
crotesing plots during the survey and four wolf scats were found 
on the dead deer strips. 

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 

The Lake Penage country provided its best deer hunting 
during the 1930* s and 40 ? s. It was during the 40* s that a slight 
decline in the success was first noted. This downward trend continued 
at an increasing rate during the 50 9 s until the severe winter of 
1958-59* when a very marked change took place. Deer were no longer 
seen regularly along the lake's shores, evidence of deer activity 
became scarce and the number of animals killed each fall drastically 
decreased. 



- 12 - 

A review of the lumber industry suggests a similar change 
in forest conditions. Timber operators who were active in the first 
decade of this century undoubtedly would be faced with a similar 
problem to that of the hunters. They would be hard pressed to find 
merchantable timber in the area,, 

Thorpe (1951) provides us with an interesting review of 
the lumbering industry in this area during the first 50 years of the 
20th century. For example, the Victoria Harbour Lumber Company over 
a 16 year period (1908-25) removed from Bevin, Dieppe and Caen 
townships a total of 115,000,000 feet of white and red pine sawlogs 
and about 3,000,000 feet of hemlock and white spruce. Chew Brothers 
operating in Goschen township in the years 1918-47 cut 53,000,000 
feet of red and white pine, along with the following: 

1,000,000 feet birch; 

2,500,000 feet white spruce; 

9,000,000 feet hemlock; 

500,000 feet cedar logs; 

110,000 feet ash; 

200,000 feet maple; 

60,000 feet oak; 

15,000 cords mixed pulpwood; 

600 cedar poles; 

1,000 cedar posts. 

As a comparison to this early operation of Chew Brothers, 
E. Salo working in Goschen township in the period 1959-61 cut;- 

34,850 feet of red and white pine; 
6,438 feet of birch; 
3,000 feet spruce; 
16,340 feet hemlock; 
439 feet cedar; 
52 cords of hardwood fuelwood. 

Salo's annual cut represents about 3 per cent of Chew 
Brothers annual cut. Old residents of the area recall these large 
operations early in the century and the gradual build up of deer. 
When questioned at length they revealed the conditions which we con- 
sider ideal for deer. Today it is difficult to find deer range in 
the Lake Penage area at all comparable to their descriptions. 

The Lake Penage area, because of its limited access routes, 
provides the Sudbury District with one of its best sources of hunter 
success information. Prior to the decline of the deer herd a check- 
ing station located on the Penage Lake road provided this district 
with an adequate sample of hunter statistics. Since the decline, the 
author has been pressed to contact sufficient hunters to make the 
data collected worthwhile. 

With access limited by the road system, and a check being 
made of the hunters through the commercial airways and by a camp 
survey, it is the opinion of the author that a very high per cent of 
the deer legally killed were checked in the fall of 1961. The 
calculated kill for the area described in this report is 25-30 animals. 



- 13 - 

To arrive at the number of hunters present in the area it is necessary 

to assume that the average of five men per camp recorded in the land 

use camp survey, Hughson (1962) holds true for private camps as well. 
The calculated hunting force is then: 



41 land use permits x 5 

130 private camps x 5 

3 commercial camps x 10 
casuals 



205 men 
650 men 
30 men 
100 men 
2S 



This then gives a hunter success for the area of: 



25 x 100 
985 



2.5% 



«z 



or 



30 x 100 
985 



3.0$ 



It has been pointed out that a wintering deer density of 
four deer per square mile is needed to provide the hunters with any 
deer at all. The spring crotesing count indicates a winter deer 
density in excess of 4 deer per square mile, but the limited winter 
range (less than 5 per cent of six townships covered in this report) 
produces a small wintering herd. It would appear from winter aerial 
and ground surveys that a total winter range of five square miles 
would be the maximum for the Lake Penage area. This results in a 
calculated wintering deer population of 83 (I6c5 x 5 « 82. 5» In 
the opinion of the Sudbury District fish and wildlife staff the Lake 
Penage deer herd has declined to the point where hunter success will 
be negligible for some time to come. 

Remedial operations have begun on an experimental basis in 
the Lake Penage area. The writer, observing the downward trend in 
the deer herd, discussed the situation with Fish and Wildlife 
Supervisor, C. F. Bibby, in the spring of I960. Mr. Bibby, who is 
fully acquainted with the area and was aware of the problem some 
years ago, suggested several areas that might be considered for 
experimental work. The area forester was approached for his opinion 
and ideas and during the winter of 1961 two one acre plots were cut 
by the writer with the assistance of five men from the Creighton- 
Lively Conservation Club. The areas selected were adjacent to the 
1961 yarding area (Map 3) and were covered primarily with pole size 
maples, with an overstory of conifer. The plots were clear cut of 
hardwood leaving only a few conifer trees standing. Some trees were 
cut part way through and pushed over, others were cut off completely. 
The "cut and push" system provided some browse during the 1961-62 
winter and sucker growth from the ground is expected to provide 
considerable browse for the 1962-63 winter. During the winter of 
1961-62 with the assistance of the Royal Canadian Air Force Ground 
Search and Rescue team the author enlarged one plot to three acres 
and cut a third plot of two acres. 

It has been found, from the work carried out to date, that 
it requires three man-days to cut an acre. The areas are used almost 
immediately by the wintering herds and in one instance when the 



- 14 - 

cutting was carried out a short distance from the wintering herd, 
they were attracted from the cover of the area they were frequenting, 
across an open area to the cut,. Considerable organization and pro- 
vision must be made to carry out a relatively short cutting operation 
when using voluntary assistance. This tends to provide an imbalance 
between administration and operation and results in an unsatisfactory 
work load distribution. 

It is evident that remedial work cannot be carried out on 
an economical basis by jobbers in this area and any further improve- 
ments will have to be done as the experimental work was or on a 
strictly district management project basis. 

SUMMARY 

1. A density distribution and dead deer survey was carried 
out in the spring of 1962 in the Penage Lake deer yards. 

2. It was calculated that the 1961-62 wintering deer density 
for this area was 16.5 deer per square mile and the winter mor- 
tality was 3«2 dead deer per square mile. 

3. The 1961-62 winter deer range is considerably less than 
that occupied by deer in 195#-59 in the Lake Penage area. 

4# A review of the early logging history suggests a parallel 
in the changes observed in the deer herd. 

5. The calculated 1961 legal kill of deer for the area was 
25-30 animals for a hunter success of 2.5 - 3»0 V er cent. 

6. The calculated 1961-62 wintering deer population for the 
Lake Penage deer yard is S3 animals. 

7» Three experimental areas have been cut as a habitat im- 
provement project, a cut and push system provides immediate 
browse, while clear cutting results in future growth. 

£. Three man-days are required to cut a one acre area. 

9* It is suggested that remedial work be carried out as a 

district management program, as economical jobber operations in 
this area are non-existant at this time. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are indebted to the Royal Canadian Air Force Ground 
Search and Rescue Team headed by F/0 L. Legrange, Falconbridge; 
and the Creighton-Lively Conservation Club for the assistance they 
provided during the spring deer survey and the winter cutting operations 

Thanks are due to Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, C. F. 
Bibby and Biologist, D. I. Gillespie, for suggestions and assistance 
provided in planning this work. I would like to thank Conservation 
Officer, L. L, Trodd, for the assistance he provided during the winter 
patrols of 1960-61 and 1961-62. 



- 15 - 

REFERENCES 

Mulligan, D» A. and L. L. Trodd I960. Preliminary deer investigations 
in the Espanola Forestry-Wildlife Management unit. Onu. 
Depto of Lands and Forests Fish and Wildlife Management 
Report No. 54, Nov. I960. 

Thorpe, T. 1951« A review of the logging and pulp operations 

in Sudbury District during the years 1901-1951 Sudbury 
District Historical Report. Unpubl. 



SUDBURY DISTRICT 



- 16 - 



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Map 1 Showing W/A 
Survey Area. V///\ 



Miles 



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20 



10 



20 



40 



- 19 - 
1962 WINTER AERIAL CENSUS OF WOODLAND CARIBOU ( Rangifer tarandus) 

IN THE PICKLE CROW-ARMSTRONG AND KOWKASH-MARTIN FALLS REGIONS 

by 

B e H. Gibson 

Biologist, Geraldton District 

Abstract 

An aerial woodland caribou inventory was carried out 
in 1962 in the Pickle Crow-Armstrong and Kowkash- 
Martin Falls regions of Ontario from January 12 to 
March 15 . The survey area had latitude boundaries of 
50°25*N. and 52°N. Longitude boundaries were 84°30'W. 
and 89°30'W. Only one herd of six caribou was sighted 
in 24,640 square miles. This herd was not on a tran- 
sect. One hundred and eighty- four moose were seen. 
There were 4,510 miles of transect flown, with a 
total transect area of approximately 2,94$ square 
miles. Of this total transect area, 1,865 square miles 
were sampled at an average altitude of 800 feet and 
1,083 square miles were censused at 1,000 feet. Thus 
11.9 per cent of the 24,640 square miles was actually 
surveyed. Nine flocks of sharp-tailed grouse were 
seen and beaver, otter and wolves appeared to be 
numerous over most of the area. 



Purpose of the Census 

The aerial survey carried out this year is part of a 
province-wide assessment of our woodland caribou populations. This 
study should help to provide us with valuable management data on 
the caribou. Data concerning the total number of caribou, and their 
densities and distribution over their winter range are valuable 
management aids. Information on the caribous' movements and the 
sex and age composition of the herds are also extremely valuable 
information derived from a survey of this type. 

Method of Surve y 

The Geraldton District was asked to survey an area of 
approximately 25,000 square miles. This area has latitude boundar- 
ies of 50°25 9 N e and 520N„ Longitude confinements were 84°30'V;. 
and 89°30*W. *Maps on a scale of eight miles to the inch were 
prepared of the survey area. Parallel predetermined flight lines 
or transects were marked on these working maps. The western portion 
of the area surveyed (from lines 1 to 28 inclusive) was flown at 
four mile spacings at 800 feet on the average because of the heavy 
forest cover. The eastern portion (from lines 29 to 41 inclusive; 
was flown at eight mile intervals at an average altitude of 1,000 
feet because the open swamp of this region facilitated the sighting 
of animals at greater distances. The higher altitude made naviga- 
tion easier in this area where navigation aids, (lakes, rivers) 
were fewer. Armstrong, Attawapiskat Lake, Geraldton and Pagwa in 
this order were used as bases of operations. 

A large map showing the distribution of tracks of moose and woodland 
caribou, and sightings of moose, caribou, wolves and sharp-tailed 
grouse accompanied the original report. (Maple Library). 



- 20 - 

The aircraft used was a Beaver; its crew was composed of 
a navigator and two observers e A piece of typewriter ribbon was 
fastened to the wing strut at the number two position. Only- 
animals sighted between the ribbon and the ski were considered 
to be on the transect. This gave us an effective coverage of 
2 x BOO x 2 or 3200 feet at an altitude of 800 feet, and similarily 
2 x 1000 x 2 or 4000 feet coverage on each transect of 1000 feet. 
There were 41 of these flight lines for the survey area. Each 
transect was 110 miles long, ran approximately north to south 
and required usually about 65 minutes to fly at an average air speed 
of 105 miles per hour. It was originally planned to fly four lines 
a day, but this was only accomplished on three occasions due to 
inclement weather experienced throughout the study period. A total 
I of 41 x 110 or 4510 miles of transects was flown. Approximately 45 
hours of flying tine was involved in flying the transects. 

Sightings of moose and caribou or their tracks were 
recorded directly on the working map by the navigator. Only 
actual sightings of other species (wolves, otter, sharp-tailed 
grouse, etc.) were recorded, but not their tracks. The observers 
recorded the sightings and the times of each sighting. The nav- 
igator also recorded the time of flight over prominent topo- 
graphical features as an aid to navigation. At times it was 
difficult for the navigator to record all track or animal sight- 
ings and still navigate properly. In many such cases, it was 
necessary to mark in the observations later on the ground, using 
the records of the two observers, In all cases where caribou 
or their tracks were observed, however, these sightings were 
recorded immediately on the map for greater accuracy. 

The survey was originally expected to require approximately 
three weeks to complete, beginning January 12. From the start of 
the survey, however, inclement and extremely cold weather retarded 
the survey. On several occasions, the aircraft became airborne in 
-20 degree temperatures with clear skies, only to encounter what 
appeared to be clouds of ice crystals which reduced the visibility 
to zero, and forced immediate landing of the aircraft or, if 
possible, a return to base until flying conditions improved. This 
ice-cloud condition was often met while flying out of Armstrong and 
Attawapiskat Lake. It usually was encountered on very cold and 
clear afternoons. This condition, this winter, has been the worst 
in years, according to bush pilots in the area. 

Mote: Daily flight logs were kept. On these forms meteoro- 
logical data and numbers of animals sighted on each transect were 
recorded ? as were observations of interest such as concentrations 
of moose and caribou tracks. 

Observat ions 

( a ) Toporraohy a nd T imber 

The area surveyed was comprised of two generally different 
topographic and timber types. The terrain and timber were heter- 
ogeneous in the western portion (lines 1 to 28 approximately) of 
the census area. It was sometimes flat, as in the valleys, and 



- 21 - 

sometimes steep, with bluffs and hills common in the upland areas. 
In the lowland areas, black spruce was the dominant tree species; 
jackpine was the principal species on the uplands . Small dystro- 
phic lakes were infrequently seen compared with the numerous 
"finger" lakes common to ice-scoured plain regions. 

The northern portion of the western area surveyed was 
comprised of timber composed of about 95 per cent conifers, while 
in the south section, about BO per cent of the timber was composed 
of conifers. The remaining percentages were comprised chiefly of 
hardwoods such as white birch, poplar, willow, tag alder and hazel. 
The birch and poplar were generally in isolated, homogeneous 
"patches", scattered throughout the expanse of spruce. The tag 
alder and willows were usually near the shores of the streams or 
lakes. A large burnt-over area of about 50 square miles was present 
southwest of Attawapiskat Lake. 

East of line 28, approximately, there was a noticeable 
transition to flatter, more swamp-like terrain that was consider- 
ably more homogeneous than it was west of line 28. Swamp con- 
ditions probably made up about 60-75 per cent of this area. 
In the swamp areas, the spruce were either in random, small, 
isolated and confined patches of large trees within the expanse of 
swamp, or were widely scattered and stunted throughout most of 
the swamp region. The lakes in the swamp area were small, generally 
oval, widely scattered, with low shorelines and generally were typ- 
ically dystrophic. 

(b) Wildlife Observations 

1. Caribou 

The heavy coniferous region west of transect 28 did not appear 
to be utilized to any degree as winter range by the caribou. 
No caribou were sighted on the entire 28 transects. A few, 
scattered tracks were seen on one occasion each, on lines one 
and five. The spruce canopy at times was so heavy that some 
caribou could have been present, but not seen. From the scarcity 
of tracks observed, this whole area did not seem attractive to 
caribou. 

In the portion of the surveyed area east of line 28, the 
swamp-like, relatively homogeneous terrain appeared to be 
more attractive winter caribou habitat. This appeared to 
be particularly true of the north end of the area between 
transects 31 to 35 • Along these transects, tracks and 
feeding craters were seen on several occasions. In all 
cases, the animals appeared to be constantly on the move. 

Only six caribou were seen in the swamp area; these were 
sighted on February 21, between transects 31 and 32 at 
the north end. Five unidentified adults and one unident- 
ified calf formed the herd. Presumably, there were one or 
more does in the herd because of the presence of the calf. 
Attempts to drive the animals from the perimeter of mature 
spruce in which they stood were futile, and therefore, 
it was impossible to photograph them. The caribou did not appear 
to be unduly alarmed, but remained immobile and stared at the 



- 22 - 

aircraft. It is conceivable that this herd could have 
been part of a much larger herd, because of the large 
number of tracks seen in the area, compared with the 
small number of animals observed., 

Only at the north ends of the transects were many- 
caribou tracks sighted . The north boundary (latitude 
52°) of the survey area appears to be on the fringe of 
the best caribou range, because most of the tracks 
observed were near this latitude., 

2, Moose 

Sightings of moose in the survey area were numerous, 
As many as twenty animals were seen during a day's 
flyingo A total of 184 were seen on. the transects. 
This number is probably only a small portion of the 
total population in the region. It is likely that 
many were unobserved in the heavy timber in the west- 
ern part of the survey area. 

In some localities, the moose tracks interlaced to a 
great degree, giving the impression that large herds 
were involved. The largest herd seen, however, was 
comprised of eight animals sighted on transect eight. 
The areas the moose favoured were generally on the 
edge of a stream where willows and tag alders were 
abundant. The large, burned area southwest of Attaw- 
apiskat Lake appeared to contain a large population 
of moose. Moose appeared to inhabit the entire survey 
area, although they were more abundant in the western 
portion of the area surveyed. Moose sightings were 
less frequent in the swamp areas near latitude $2°, 
where most of the caribou tracks were seen. 

There did not appear to be anydirect competition 
in any way between the moose and caribou. There 
appeared to be separate ecological niches occupied 
by both species near latitude 52°. 

3c Other Species of Wildlife 

Numerous signs of other species were present over 
most of the census area. Beaver dams and houses 
were abundant, indicating that beaver are widespread 
and numerous over most of the region. Otter also were 
abundant; it was not unusual to see as many as twenty 
sets of tracks of this species in a day 9 s flying. 
Only three wolves were seen, although wolf tracks were 
common across the area. Nine flocks of sharp-tailed 

f rouse were seen totalling 75 birds and averaging 
«3 per flock. Fox tracks were numerous, while lynx 
tracks were seen infrequently. 



- 23 - 

Results and Conclusions 

(1) Within the 24,640 square miles surveyed there were 41 x 110 
or 4,510 miles of transect flown* 

(2) (a) The area of transects covered at an altitude of £00 feet 

for lines 1 to 2$ inclusive was 110 x 2$ x 3200 , -,*/-£- 
square miles. 5280 "~ °^ 

(b) The area of transects covered at an altitude of 1000 feet 
for lines 29 to 41 inclusive was 110 x 13 x 4000 _ ind0 
square miles 5280 ~ 1083 

(3) The area actually surveyed represented 2948 or 11.9 per cent 
of the total area. 24640 

(4) No caribou were seen on the transects» 

(5) Six caribou were seen off the transects» 

From the small number of caribou observed (6), and 
from the restricted area near latitude 52° over which any 
concentrations of caribou tracks were seen, it appears as if 
over 90 per cent of the total surveyed area is not utilized 
by caribou as winter range, at least not to any great degree. 
It also appears to be conclusive that the caribou prefer the 
northeastern portion with its swamp areas fragmented with 
spruce "patches" o The western portion of the surveyed area 
is relatively unused by caribou They do not appear to 
remain any length of time in one locality, as the few tracks 
seen indicated that the caribou moved considerably to the west 
or east. 

There were periods during the survey when it was 
not possible to fly for a week or more due to unfavourable 
weather conditions. In this time, it is conceivable that 
there could have been considerable movement of caribou from 
one transect to another, hence the same herd of caribou 
could be responsible for many of the tracks observed near 
latitude 52° o As a result , there might really be a much 
smaller number cf animals in the area than would appear from 
the numbers of tracks and the area over which they extended. 
Just how much movements of this nature occurred is difficult 
to ascertain, but they must be considered. 

Summary 

(1) An aerial census cf woodland caribou was expedited in 
the Pickle Crew-Armstrong and Kowkash Martin Falls 
regions during the winter of 1962. 

(2) An area of approximately 25,000 square miles was surveyed. 
There were 4? 510 miles of transects flown with a total 
transect area of 2,948 square miles. Of this transect 
area, 1,865 square miles were sampled at an average 
altitude of 800 feet, 1,083 square miles were covered 

at an average altitude of 1,000 feet. Also, 2 . 948 or 

24,640 
approximately 11.9 per cent of the total area was sampled. 



- 24 - 

(3) From lines 1 to 28 the strips were spaced at four miles, 
and from 29 to 41 at eight miles, because of the more 
open terrain encountered, which facilitated sightings 
of animals in the latter region at greater distances. 

(4) Inclement weather hampered the census and extended the 
duration of the survey by several weeks. 

(5) The tracks of moose and caribou were recorded on the 
working map. Sightings of other species (sharp-tailed 
grouse, wolves, etc.) were recorded also. 

(6) The western portion of the census area (1 to 28 approx- 
imately) is heavily forested with black spruce in the 
lowlands and jackpine on the uplands. Hardwoods comprise 
only about 5 per cent to 10 per cent of the timber. From 
lines 29 to 41, swamp, fragmented with patches of spruce 
was typical of the survey area. 

(7) Only six caribou were seen during the entire project; 
these were recorded off transect 31» Moose were numerous, 
with 1^4 being seen. Moose were most numerous in the 
western part (1 to 28) . The entire area is far better 
suited ecologically for moose than caribou it seems. 

(8) Caribou tracks were most numerous at the north ends of 
the transects in the swamp region (lines 31 to 35) near 
latitude 52°N. 

(9) Caribou do not appear to use any of the survey area 
extensively except for the northeast portion along 
latitude 52°. This is probably the southern fringe 
of the best caribou range, judging from the greater 
number of tracks seen near this latitude, compared 
with the rest of the census area. 

(10) Nine flocks of sharp-tailed grouse, totalling 75 
birds and averaging 8.3 birds were seen. Three 
wolves were seen. Beaver, otter and wolves appeared 
to be numerous over most of the area, as judged from 
the large number of tracks seen of the latter two 
species, and from the number of houses and dams of 
the former species. 



- 25 - 

LYNX LIVE TRAPPING PROJECT IN WHITE RIVER DISTRICT 

by 

Ec J. Mitchell 

Conservation Officer 



Abstract 

A live trapping program was undertaken from January 4 
to May 22, 1962 to obtain Canada lynx for tagging. 
The type of trap used is described and a sketch appended 
Three areas where lynx tracks had been observed were 
chosen for trapping sites. Five lynx were captured, 
ear-tagged and released at the original trapping site. 
Recaptures of two different animals were recorded. 
Snowshoe rabbit and beaver meat were used as bait. A 
total of 14«5 man-days were spent on the project with 
an average of 62 trap-set-nights per animal taken. 



Introduction 

The lynx live trapping program was originally undertaken 
to obtain lynx for transfer and restocking within another district. 
This plan was later cancelled and the acquired equipment was used to 
commence a lynx tagging project in the Manitouwadge patrol area of 
the District on January 4th through to May 22nd. 

Materials 

Traps - A total of six live traps were built, four of 
which were used in this project. The traps were built from an 
original design believed to have been used in the Banff National 
Park for the purpose of live trapping, however, this could not be 
verified, nor could the name of the person responsible for the 
design be learned. 

The following is a description of the trap, a sketch of 
which is appended to this report: 

Dimensions - 2 by 2 by 6 feet 

Frame - 2 by 2 inch wood 

Covering - 1 inch chicken wire with plywood floor. 

Door - A sliding drop door (originally wood replaced with 
metal due to warping) 

Trigger Mechanism - When set the door is propped on a pin which is 
fastened by a flexible copper wire to the trigger lever, the wire 
passing through eye hooks inserted on cross bars on top of the trap. 



- 26 - 

Trigger Lever - Made of wood and swings freely on a wooden dowl 
(broom handle) attached to the sides of the trap at the top. A 
red flag is attached to the upper end of the lever the lower end 
being curved to receive the baito 

A removable plywood panel is situated immediately in front 
of the lever on top of the trap for inserting the baitc It is 
held in place by an iron rod passing through eye hooks fastened 
to the sides of the trap. 

Tags 

Ketchums Kurl Lock Ear Tags #2 and pliers were used with a 
piece of wolf snare wire as an aid in the tagging operations. 

Baits 

Snowshoe rabbits obtained by snaring and beaver meat 
donated by local trappers were used as baits. 

Method 

Trapping Operations 

The sites chosen for the sets consisted of areas where lynx 
tracks were observed. Three areas were used throughout the trapping 
project; maps indicating the site of each trap set accompany this 
report. Areas are used in describing the trapping location sites 
since as many as three traps were set within a short distance of one 
another. These areas are similar in composition being regeneration 
jack pine, medium to dense stands, 15-20 years in age, and 15-25 feet 
in height. 

The traps were checked frequently and left not longer than 
four days between visits. They were moved to a new location when 
tracks were no longer observed or when the traps were left untouched 
for a period of two or three weeks. When first set out the traps 
were completely covered with jack pine bows to form a covey and set 
within a stand of trees, being left in this manner for a period of 
two weeks. They were later moved and set on the edges of clearings, 
narrow trails and roads not used in the winter. This practice was 
continued throughout the remainder of the project after a book on 
lynx trapping methods had been obtained. The author expressed his 
opinion that trapping in this manner would produce best results. 

Tagging 

The lynx were tagged and released at the trap site, if 
possible. On two occasions the animals were transported to head- 
quarters for tagging and returned to the trap site for release. 

In the tagging operation the trap was turned on end limit- 
ing the animals movements. A piece of snare wire was formed into a 
loop and passed through one square of the wire mesh. It was then 
placed around the animal* s neck and the head pulled against the 
cage, allowing the tag to be affixed at the base of the ear. 



27 - 



Results 



A total of five lynx were successfully tagged and released 
at locations shown on the accompanying maps* 



Area 

Noo 


No, 
Captured 


Capture and 
Latitude 


release site 
Longitude 


Tag 
No. 


Date of 
Release 


Age 


1 


1 


43° 54' 


35° 55' 


516 


Jan, 25 


Young 


1* 


1 


4S° 53' 


85° 53' 


517 


Feb. 14 


Young 


1 


1 


43° 54' 


85° 55' 


513 


Feb. 15 


Young 


2 


3 


1 


43° 49' 


85° 51' 


519 


Apr. 9 


Adult 


3 


1 


48° 49' 


85° 49' 


520 


May 22 


Young 



* This lynx was captured in a snare by a trapper and 
brought to headquarters for tagging. The trapper choked the animal 
with the snare, tied it securely while it was unconscious and 
transported it in the trunk of his vehicle. It was tagged and 
released without difficulty,, 

The lynx bearing Tag No, 516 was caught three days after 
release, approximately one mile from the site in a No. 4 trap by the 
same trapper, It was brought to headquarters in the same manner 
described, and released a second time when no apparent damage was 
noted to the foot. The trapper declined to kill both these animals 
due to their small size« 



One lynx, upon being approached while in the trap, repeat- 
edly charged the side of the cage inflicting minor cuts to the 
nose. The remainder of the lynx showed no signs of being nervous 
until the actual tagging procedure commenced. In some cases the 
lynx were reluctant to leave the trap when the door was opened 
even when no one was near the trap. 

One lynx (Tag No. 519) was captured three successive 
times in three different traps within the same area, the traps 
being situated approximately 1/4 mile apart bordering an old 
road. This took place over a period of three weeks. 



- 2d - 

On one occasion the tracks showed a lynx had passed within 
15 feet of a trap with no apparent hesitation. This trap was situated 
in clear view bordering an old roado On two occasions the traps had 
been set off and the bait taken. It was believed the first animal 
escaped through the removable plywood panel which had a hole chewed 
in ito On the second occasion the drop door was half closed and 
buckled outward. In both cases the identity of the animal could 
not be determined due to a recent snowfall. 

Numerous fox tracks circled the traps on a number of 
occasions, some tracks shewed that the fox had stepped into the 
opening of the trap but had not taken the bait. Wolf tracks also 
passed near the traps but none came closer than }0 to 40 feet, 

Both beaver and rabbit meat seemed to work equally well 
for baiting. 

A total of 14.5 man-days were spent on the project with 
an average of 62 trap-set-nights per animal taken. 

Cost 

The traps were constructed at a cost of $35*00 each. The 
estimated total cost of the operation was $450.00. 

Average Snow Depth 

January 16.5" 

February 20.9" 

March 24.9" 

April 5.0" 

May 0.9" 

Conclusion 

On two occasions while using the snare wire as an aid to 
tagging the lynx were choked unconscious. This resulted from 
applying too much pressure with the wire. The lynx revived 
but a loss could be encountered if care were not taken in this 
method. 

The lynx trapped and released were caught in sets left 

uncovered. No comparison could be made with the covey sets as 

this type of trapping was used for a short duration at the 
commencement of the project. 

It was noted that more than one lynx travelled within 
the same area. This was evidenced by the fact that three lynx were 
caught in one area within a period of a month, two being captured 
in two days. One lynx was found dead in a snare (Trap area No. 1) 
within this period. 



- 29 - 

Information on the lynx trapped (e.g. sex, length, weight) 
was not taken but would prove valuable in future years e It is the 
intention at this writing to continue this project in future years 
and obtain pertinent information from all lynx captured. 



References 



Hawbaker, S. Stanley, 1953 « Trapping North American 
Animals. 



- 30 



OJ ~ 




a. 

< 
a: 



> 



x 




AREA NO, 1 
SCALE 1 in. = 1 mi. 



AjBjC jD j 



SITES OF LIVE TRAPS 

SHOWING MOVEMENT AND RESETTING OF EACH TRAP 

(e.g. Al, A2, A3,) 

LYNX RELEASE SITE AND TAG NO. 



33 



AREA NO .3 
Scale 1 in, = 1 mile 



r~\ - SITES OF LIVE TRAPS 

A,B,C,D, - SHOWING MOVEMENT AND 

RESETTING OF EACH TRAP 
(e.g. Al, A2, A3) 



RELEASE SITE AND TAG NO 




- 34 - 

WOOD DUCK BANDING, PEMBROKE DISTRICT, 1961 

by 
W. Ro Catton 
Assistant Senior Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

A wood duck banding program was carried out during 
the summer of 1961. Information is given on the 
selection of trapping areas, prebaiting and the 
construction of bait platforms and traps. Raccoons 
presented a serious predation problem. At one stage 
of the operations of 30 birds captured 14 were lost 
to raccoonsc Twelve raccoons were destroyed at the 
trapping sites. A total of 52 wood ducks and one 
green-winged teal were banded and released during an 
1$ day period from August 12 to 31° Seven birds were 
recovered within 50 miles of the trapping site but 
one recovery was made in south-central New York State, 
approximately 300 miles from Pembroke, 



At the request of Head Office a program was undertaken 
in 1961 to attempt the marking of as many wood ducks as possible. 
The project was carried out in an effort to make a Provincial 
contribution to a continental wood duck banding program. The main 
purpose of the project was to study, on a continental basis and 
in conjunction with numerous .Atlantic and Mississippi States: 

(a) the effects of additional regulations on species, 

(b) to obtain information on local production and harvest, 

(c) to record information on wintering grounds. 

Preparation 
Trapping Areas 

Prior to actual trapping, a number of important steps 
have to be carried out. 

Although other species of waterfowl can be readily 
trapped in quantity on sloughs and mustering grounds this has not 
as yet proven to be the case with wood ducks. Nesting and other 
generally secretive habits of the species dictates that trapping 
for juvenile and immature wood ducks be carried out on brood 
production ponds. These include not so much marshy sites as 
isolated, flooded wooded areas such as beaver ponds; sites con- 
taining older and decayed trees (or those for which artificial 
nesting sites have been provided and are utilized,) Due to this 
trapping of almost inacessible ponds it has been our observation 
to date that a great deal of effort is involved in capturing 
comparatively few wood ducks. 



- 35 - 

Prebaiting 

Once likely trapping ponds are located, they are baited 
with cracked or kernel corn; we prefer whole kernels . Trapping 
areas more often than not, contain highly acid brackish water. 
Such a condition restricts the depth at which the bait may be 
seen by ducks and whole kernels were thought to be best for the 
situation 

In trapping marsh ducks, competition from natural food 
did not present any problem until late August when wild rice 
kernels and other food forms were available. However, in the case 
of young wood ducks, competition on stagnant ponds begins earlier 
as duck weed is normally abundant and heavily utilized by ducklings* 
In areas where this floating weed is present it was observed that 
chances of getting birds to take bait were considerably lessened. 

R afts 

Rafts were constructed of lj inch lumber framing covered 
with chicken wire over which burlap was placed . Constructed in 
varying sizes they must be restricted to a size permitting easy 
handling and transportation. 

Purpose of the rafts was to provide a platform over 
which bait could be spread* In an effort to entice birds off local 
natural food, platforms were placed at depths varying from completely 
afloat to six inches beneath the surface. On trapping sites for 
which a poor bottom is present, bait was displayed on burlap, hog- 
ringed to a section of chicken wire and pegged down to form a 
suitable bottom. 

Trap Construction 

Traps were constructed beforehand and several kinds were 
tried; we favoured a collapsible trap made of #16 and #14 ga., 
1 inch by 1 inch welded wire, the lighter recommended. Traps were 
put together using hog rings, an average trap measuring 3x6, 5x6, 
6x5 feet, base, walls and ends. Tops were made of cotton netting, 
however, if there is danger from predation stronger material is 
recommended. 

Entrances (one to a 3x6 trap) with an opening of 3 to 4 
inches in width are recommended. It is suggested the final few 
inches of a funnel be left flexible enough to permit ducks to 
squeeze through the opening. Mr. Frank Bellrose who has done 
considerable wood duck banding in the United States suggests a 
funnel opening of 3-4 inches and a height of 5 inches. It is his 
belief that the smaller the trap the more apparent the entrance is 
to the duck. 

A less cumbersome and somewhat smaller portable trap 
is thought to be easier to work with especially when attempting 
captures on almost inaccessible ponds. 



- 36 - 

A small "barrel shape" trap constructed of a page wire 
foundation with chicken wire wrapped over it was employed and 
found satisfactory on one site., This trap (previously a poacher* s 
fish trap) might best be employed where it is hard to locate 
larger traps along deep water such as on a river bank. Predation 
is the main drawback to this type of trap, although this problem 
was found to be serious wherever raccoons made their presence 
known regardless of trap types employed. 

Predation 

Previous experience at capturing black ducks in northern 
Ontario held little similarity when compared to capturing wood 
ducks in raccoon country? 

Predation was so serious at one stage that we were ready 
to cease our operations having captured thirty odd birds while 
losing fourteen to raccoons,. At this point we had developed little 
love but a lot of respect for the speciesS 

Every precaution should be taken to minimize predation. 
The "U.S. Guide to Waterfowl Banding" offers some suggestions. 
We recommends 

- covering pans of steel traps with aluminum foil. 

- use of corn cobs in attempting to decoy raccoons away from trap 
proper 

- use of Gonibear traps (to be tried this year). 

On one occasion a floating trap was set out some 50 
feet from shore where a good concentration of birds existed. 
Raccoons continued to prey despite all precautions swimming to 
the trap and killing all the captured birds. In areas where predation 
is serious it is even suggested banding be discontinued if the pro- 
blem cannot be surmounted. When a sure catch is immenent it is sug- 
gested twice daily visits be made to trap sites and that the trap be 
kept under constant surveillance. At such a site during an evening 
visit we observed one raccoon inside the live trap and four other 
walking the outside perimeter. Some ten feet from the funnel ent iQ u 
the brood of wood ducks fed seemingly unconcerned. Before this trap 
was removed three raccoons were destroyed but not before they had 
killed two ducks. 

Despite fine lxl inch mesh, raccoons seem to be quite 
adept at killing ducks from outside the trap. 

A total of twelve raccoons were destroyed at trapping 
sites. It has occurred to us that Conibear traps would be more 
successful than conventional jump traps. 

Trapping re suits 

A total of 52 wood ducks and 1 green-winged teal were 
banded and released during a period covering IS days trapping 
from August 12th to 31st. An additional 14 birds were killed by 



s 
ranee 



Date 


New 
Birds 


Repeats 


Noo Live 
Traps 


Predator 
Losses 


Aug. 12 
13 



1 






2 
2 






14 








2 





15 


1 





2 


1 



- 37 - 

predators, 1 drowned in a raccoon trap and 2 others released in 
poor condition following raccoon attack. 

Daily Record of Catch 



Remarks 



Funnel too obvious, ducks 
got in and out. 

Checked twice. A live 
decoy left overnight. 

Checked twice. Decoy 
dead. 1 new bird in 
trap. 

Checked twice. A.M. 
results only. Adult + 

4 young 

Flying ducks noted on 
corn. New trap set. 

New trap set. 

Killed 3 coons. Water 
too high in Ottawa R. 

Killed 1 coon. Water too 
deep, took muskrat, snap- 
ping turtle and bullhead. 

New trap set. 1 mud turtle. 
Chicken wire trap set. 

River low trap exposed. 
Chicken wire trap dem- 
olished loss 5 ducks. 
Still 10 w. ducks on site, 

1 coon. 

2 coons. Barrel type set 
on deep water shore. 

Barrel type successful. 

1 coon at barrel trap, 
removed. Deep water 
floating raft trap set. 

Remains of 8 ducks at raft 
trap, removed. New birds 
taken at another site. 

1 new bird was green- 
winged teal. 

5 were adults, (4 males) 
1 coon. 



16 

17 

18 
19 

20 



23 



4 


3 





21 11 



22 


















3 

4 



4 
3 



















24 


3 





4 





25 


1 


1 


4 





26 


3 





3 


8 


27 


4 


1 


2 





28 


8 


4 


2 





29 
30 
31 



4 
1 


2 

3 



2 
2 
2 








Water lowered; traps high 
& dry so dismantled. 



Totals 



53 



14 



14 



- 3$ - 
Sex, Age Composition 

Species Imm. Males Imnu Females Adult Males Adult Females 
Wood Duck 15 23 11 3 

Green-winged 1 

Teal 

Band Recoveries 

Recoveries reported through U S. central banding agency - 8 

Recovery 

Under 5 miles from site of banding - 

5-25 miles from site of banding - 4 

25-50 miles from site of banding - 3 

50 plus miles from site of banding - 1* 

8 

♦This recovery made in south-central New York State approximately 
300 miles from banding site. 

Summary 

Insufficient information was obtained to form a comparison 
of attempts to trap flightless breeding pond birds and feeding 
ground flyers. Limited experience does, however, lead us to believe 
the species may be taken on mustering grounds particularly if there 
are some flightless birds in trapping area alsoo 

Correspondence with an experienced wood duck bander in 
United States suggests best trapping sites are those where wood ducks 
feed and not so much where they roost. 

Due to the dense raccoon population predation is a 
constant threat and every precaution should be taken to guard against 
possible attacks. 

Trapping procedure followed was mainly that of locating 
likely trapping sites, prebaiting, trap construction and actual 
trapping. 

Traps were set in stages allowing birds frequenting the 
site to get used to the trap for 2-4 days depending on bait 
acceptance. 

Wood ducks are most unpredictable. An area in which 
birds are practically eating out of the bander's hand will sometimes 
fail to produce while a less likely site will turn out to be a 
major contributor. 



- 39 - 

Trapping terrain such as found in eastern Ontario requires 
a good deal of travel in tending traps; for this reason if traps can 
be successfully operated on mustering grounds it would cut down on 
the effort and could be more productive than trapping brood ponds 

When deemed necessary and certainly when predation or 
over-crowding is a consideration traps should be tended twice daily,, 
Experience to date does not, however, indicate any significant 
increase in catch as a result of tending traps twice daily. 

Band recoveries although admittedly of little significance 
indicate most of the recoveries are taken within Ontario <> 

Sex ratios show adult females are taken but are less apt 
to be captured than adult males 

Acknowledgments 

-A sincere note of thanks to District Biologist, 
Jo F. Gardner without whose encouragement the project might have 
folded early when predation seemed an insurmountable problem and 
also for his assistance in actual trappingo 

- Frank Bellrose, U. S. Game Specialist; for his helpful 
remarks on trapping techniques 



- 40 - 

DUCK BANDING - GOG AM DISTRICT, 1961 

by 
Bruce Turner 
Assistant Senior Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

Duck banding at Halliday Lake was carried out for 
the sixth consecutive year. A marked decrease in 
duck numbers over the past several years was noticed 
this year; 112 ducks banded compared with 163 in I960 
and 193 in 1959. Daily records of waterfowl trapped 
along with a comparison of daily records of ducks 
banded from 1956 to 1961 are presented, as well as 
a breakdown of the cost of the operation. 



The duck banding project at Halliday Lake, commenced on 
August 9th and was completed on September 14th, for the sixth 
consecutive year. Conservation Officers supervised the project 
with the assistance of Raymond McKay, Treaty Indian from the 
Mattagami Reserve. 

On August 9th the grass was cut at all the banding 
sites, traps pulled out into view, and the sites were baited 
with cracked corn. Water levels were approximately IB inches 
higher than the previous year. The second visit was made to 
Halliday Lake on August 14th, the traps were partially erected, 
and the sites were re-baited. At Dog and Baker traps there was 
no acceptance to the bait. It was thought that the water was too 
deep for black ducks to feed on at both these traps. 

Because of the soft bottom and deep water, Dog trap 
was moved one mile upstream to a new location. At Baker trap, 
a platform was built out of poles covered with burlap and 
camouflaged with mud. Cracked corn was then scattered over the 
platform for bait. 

August 21st, camp was set up at Halliday Lake, and the 
erection of the traps began, all sites were re-baited. On August 
23rd all the traps were completed and in operation. 

The following table gives a comparison of duration and 
success of the project since 19561- 
Year Banding Commenced Banding Ceased Total Days Total Banded 

1956 
1957 
1958 
1959 
I960 
1961 

(10S Black Ducks, 4 Mallard Ducks) 

As the above table shows a decidedly decrease in ducks 



August 23rd 


September 15th 


24 


462 


August 16th 


September 6th 


22 


206 


August 19th 


September 11th 


24 


285 


August 18th 


September 13th 


27 


198 


August 19th 


September 14th 


26 


163 


August 22nd 


September 14th 


24 


112 



- 41 - 

banded this year, we are at a loss to know what factors contributed 
to this decrease. Ducks are scarce and do not inhabit the area 
in as great numbers as in the previous years. 

Four ducks were killed by predators while the banding 
stations were in operation, one mink was caught, banded and 
released in Noble Township, approximately 20 air miles from 
place of capture. A pair of Bald Eagles was seen on several 
occasions in the vicinity of the banding sites. 

Fifteen ducks that were banded in previous years were 
recaptured this year, while only three were recaptured in i960. 

Baiting of the sites ceased on September 13th, with 
the last ducks being banded on September 15th. The traps were 
dismantled and stored away for future use. 

All the unused bait was tramped into the mud, as in 
previous years when the baiting ceased and the ducks did not 
return to the baited areas. 

An enforcement patrol was carried out for the next three 
days, sixteen duck hunters were checked and all made the comment 
that they had seen few ducks, and those shot carried no bands. 

Although the water level was consistantly high all 
season, there was an above average crop of wild rice. This was 
the first season in the last three that the largest percent of the 
crop was not lost to the ducks because of high winds shelling the 
rice off the stocks before it could be utilized by the ducks. 

Recommendations 



When water levels are high, platforms should be built 
as described on the first page of this paper, to improve the 
trapping success. 

If duck banding is to be carried out at Halliday Lake, 
some thought should be given to possibilities of the whole 
project being done by Treaty Indians under the supervision of the 
Department of Lands and Forests. This year one Indian was trained 
in all phases of the work and we feel confident that Raymond McKay 
is capable of handling the duck banding program with the help of 
another Treaty Indian. We also think that arrangements can be 
made with the Department of Indian Affairs, to hire two Indians for 
the duck banding project. They could take their families to 
Halliday Lake and along with the banding program, they could harvest 
wild rice, thus utilizing a large crop now going to waste. This 
would increase the income for two Indian families at a time of the 
year when there is little work for them. 



- 42 - 
Daily Record of Ducks Trapped 1961 



Date 


New 


Ducks 


Repeats 


Total per Day 


August 23rd 


4 








4 


24th 


9 


(1 


dead) 


1 


10 


25th 


9 






1 


10 


26th 


3 






1 


4 


27th 


6 






4 


10 


23th 


9 


(2 


dead) 


2 


11 


29th 


3 






2 


5 


30th 


2 








2 


31st 


4 






11 


15 


September 1st 


4 






6 


10 


2nd 


2 






1 


' 3 


3rd 








4 


4 


4th 


5 


(1 dead) 


4 


9 


5th 


1 






6 


7 


6th 


5 






2 


7 


7th 


3 






1 


4 


Sth 


11 






3 


14 


9th 


3 






3 


6 


10th 


2 






4 


6 


11th 


7 






9 


16 


12th 


2 






1 


3 


13th 


15 






5 


20 


14th 


3 






1 
72 


4 


TOTALS 


112 


igo 



Total by Species: 4 Mallards 

108 Black Ducks 



- 43 - 
Comparison of Daily Record of Ducks Banded 1956 - 1961 

August and September dates 



1956 

1959 
1£60 
1961 



Augus 
16 


t 
17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


29 


30 


31 
















8 


22 


39 


40 


20 


13 


20 


16 


13 


10 


18 


14 


14 


10 


7 


23 


12 


9 


8 


11 


12 


11 


9 


4 


4 








6 


11 


13 


3 


9 


12 


2 




15 


12 


17 


15 


11 














2 





9 


1 


24 


13 


13 


32 


5 


11 








4 





2 


17 


1 


1 


4 


2 


2 


8 


5 


2 


3 




















4 


8 


9 


3 


6 


7 


3 


2 


4 



1956 

1157 

i25§ 
1959 

I960 
1961 



Septe 
1 


mber 
2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 




16 


6 


10 


24 


21 


21 


30 


15 


31 


28 


14 


13 


17 


10 


13 




3 


4 


1 


1 


4 


10 






















7 


29 


23 


9 


24 


11 


8 


20 


9 


6 


2 












13 


8 


9 


12 


3 


7 


3 


2 


6 


8 


2 


6 


9 








3 


12 





12 


3 


13 


11 


14 


10 


2 


12 


3 


13 


4 






4 


2 





4 


1 


5 


3 


11 


3 


2 


7 


2 


15 


3 







- 44 - 

Cost of the 1961 Duck Banding Project, exclusive of 
Conservation Officer's wages and transportation are as follows:- 

Grain for bait $ 63. 00* 

Provisions 116.12 

Wages (Raymond McKay) 202.40 

Gas for outboards, lights and cooking 30.00 

Outboard motor oil 3 .$3 

Other Supplies (wire and rope) 9.61 

TOTAL - $ 424.96 

* Because of the few ducks feeding on the corn, we used 3/4 
of a ton of corn in 1961, whereas in previous years one 
ton was used. 

Special Appropriation from Head Office - Salaries - $ 202.00 

Maintenance - 260.00 

$ 462.00 

Total Cost - 424.96 

$ 33. 04 



- 46 - 

FRENCH RIVER ANGLING, 1961 

by 

J. M. Sheppard 

Conservation Officer 

Sudbury District 

Abstract 

Despite the increased fishing pressure that developed 
with the completion of Highway 69 in 1952, fishing in 
the French River area has remained one of the best in 
Sudbury District. A creel census conducted over a 12 
week period from July 17 to Oct. 2, 1961, revealed 
that 4,957 fish of five species were caught in the 
Main French River between Parisien Rapids and Flat 
Rapids by $64 anglers. The average catch was 5»7 
fish per angler with the average fishing success 
about 1.25 fish per rod-hour. 4,032 hours of angling 
were logged by the interviewed fishermen for an average 
of 4^7 hours per sportsman. The average fishing suc- 
cess for yellow pickerel was .57 fish per rod-hour 
while that for smallmouth bass was .46 bass per rod- 
hour. It is the writer' s opinion that fish taken in 
the Main French River are not from the same popula- 
tion taken by sportsmen and commercial fishermen in 
Georgian Bay. 



The French River has over the past years earned itself a 
reputation as Sudbury's leading, and one of Ontario's finest, sport 
fishing areas. With the completion of Highway 69 in 1952 many of the 
visiting anglers and some of the local sportsmen were ready to write 
the area off as a continued source of angling pleasure. Many changes 
have taken place since 1952 — more cottages have appeared, more 
tourist camps have been built and more tourists have visited the 
area, but the fishing has remained as one of Sudbury's best. 

When physical changes take place about a semi-wilderness 
area and access is improved the innate response of ardent sportsmen 
is to condemn the advancements of civilization and look for more 
distant fields. It was hoped that the data gathered and the result- 
ant report might graphically show to those who, in the past have 
fished in the French River waters, that while the angling success 
may not be equal to that of the days of its early angling history it 
still provides some of the best fishing in accessible Ontario. 

Methods Used 

There are many methods available for the censusing of the 
sportsman's creel — some result in an extensive coverage of the 
fishery, others produce intensive information. At the suggestion of 
the District's Fish and Wildlife Supervisor the French River creel 
census was designed to provide maximum information from a limited 



- 47 - 

portion of the river* s total area. Mr. C. Shortts of Lift-the-Latch 
Lodge was approached to seek the assistance of his guides in provid- 
ing the data for this report. Spot checks were made throughout the 
census period by the author and the guides were interviewed as fre- 
quently as possible. In addition to giving maximum coverage of that 
portion of the Main French between Parisien Rapids and Flat Rapids 
(Map 1) several neighbouring lakes were sampled throughout the sea- 
son. Two of the latter appear in this report for comparative pur- 
poses. Form 1 was designed and used throughout the census period. 

The census period reported on this paper covers twelve 
weeks of the angling seasons July 17 to October 2. The data, while 
recorded daily, have been tabulated on a weekly basis the week begin- 
ning on the same date as that of the McGregor Bay Creel Census (Silva 
and Gillespie, I960) and the Mindemoya Creel Census (Zimmerman, 1961) 
for comparative purposes. 

Survey Results 

864 anglers were interviewed during 52 angling days and 
they reported a catch of 4,957 fish of five species, viz: yellow 
pickerel ( Stizostedion vitreum ) ; smallmouth bass ( Micropterus 
dolomieui ) ; yellow perch ( Percaflavescen s) ; northern pike ( Esox 
lucius ) and maskinonge ( Esox masquinongv T . A total of 4,032 hours 
of fishing effort or an average of 4»7 hours per angler was exerted 
to produce an average catch of 5»7 fish per angler. The seasonal 
fishing success was slightly less than one and one quarter fish per 
rod-hour. 

The average angling success for the yellow pickerel during 
the twelve week period was ,57 fish per rod-hour varying between a 
low of .29 fish per rod-hour and high of 1.32 fish per rod-hour. 
Smallmouth bass showed an average success rate of .46 fish per rod- 
hour with a range of .20 to .58 fish per rod-hour , Table 1 provides 
the data grouped on a weekly basis with monthly totals. Table 2 
provides the weekly and monthly fishing effort, fishing success and 
angling census days. 

Dalton and Cat lakes are also reported on in this paper. 
Both are primarily smallmouth bass lakes approximately 60 acres and 
330 acres, respectively. Both produced an angling success during the 
census period of 1.72 fish per rod-hour, although in terms of small- 
mouth bass Dalton Lake exceeded Cat with a smallmouth bass success of 
1.64 fish per rod-hour to .90 fish per rod-hour. Table 3 provides the 
creel data of both lakes. 

Considering the catch per unit effort for yellow pickerel 
the monthly figures suggest a decrease in the availability of this 
species to the fisherman in August from the month of July, followed 
by an increase in September and October. This trend closely parallels 
the findings of Zimmerman (op. cit.) in his work on Lake Mindemoya. 

The catch per unit effort of smallmouth bass in this portion 
of the Main French River does not completely coincide with the trend 
observed in McGregor Bay (personnel communication, Gillespie) j but 
does follow fairly closely the seasonal increase noted at South Bay- 
mouth (personnel communication, Budd) . 



- 4# - 

Table 4 provides the temporal distribution of the catch- 
effort for these two species taken in the Main French River during 
1961. 

Maskinonge fishing in this portion of the river was not 
particularly significant in 1961. The 13 reported in this paper 
represents about 50 per cent of the harvest of maskinonge in an 
average year in this portion of the river. 

Throughout the season there was a significant change in 
the size of the fish caught, particularly in the yellow pickerel 
portion of the creel. During most of the early stages of the creel 
census the yellow pickerel ranged between 3/4 and 4 pounds, with lg 
pound fish being the most commonly taken size. Late in the season, 
particularly in the latter part of September and early October 
pickerel weighing 4 to 12 pounds were regularly landed. Smallmouth 
bass averaged 1-3/4 pounds throughout the season; perch ran about g 
pound or 8" and pike were taken between J and 4 pounds. The maski- 
nonge of this portion of the river run up to 3$ pounds, but the thir- 
teen reported in this paper averaged 11 pounds. 

Discussion and Conclusions 

The creel census carried out in that portion of the Main 
French River between Parisien Rapids and Flat Rapids during the 1961 
season may be somewhat biased insofar as most of the anglers contri- 
buting to the creel data were guided by some of the area's most ex- 
perienced guides. It is the author's opinion that these men through 
their daily pursuit of the fish have significantly increased their 
knowledge on the movements and location of the fish and subsequently 
are able to assure the average angler of better success than might 
normally be expected. 

Since I960 this District has carried out several creel cen- 
suses on lakes (most of them large bodies of water) in the effort to 
determine the quality of fishing produced by these waters. It has 
been difficult to set a standard of quality (or quantity) that should 
be acceptable to our visiting and resident anglers as so many factors 
have to be considered. First and foremost is the difference in 
angler wants. For example, anglers interviewed on McGregor Bay are 
omnivorous in their piscine diet — anything from northern pike to 
rock bass is acceptable. Sportsmen fishing George Lake on the other 
hand are specific — they're seeking lake trout. Here at the French 
pickerel and smallmouth bass are king, with maskinonge a very desir- 
able but evasive creel species. 

As a comparison to the pickerel fishing of the French, 
Zimmerman's (op. cit.) data from Lake Mindemoya have been used. The 
seasonal availability of pickerel on Lake Mindemoya was .3$ pickerel 
per rod-hour compared to .57 pickerel per rod-hour for the French 
River area. For comparable periods Table 5 has been constructed to 
show the temporal changes in angling success in the two waters. 
Differences in the hydrographic qualities of these two waters undoubt- 
edly account for some of the differences shown in Table 5> but in 
the author's opinion the major difference is in the type of angler 
using the two waters and the assistance they receive from the guides. 



- 49 - 

It is interesting to follow what seems to be shifts in the 
pickerel habitat as the season progresses. The hypothesis that this 
species moves along the river is based on the habits of the exper- 
ienced guides in seeking certain waters at certain times of the year. 
Map 1 while showing the location of the creel census area also pro- 
vides, along with the legend, a chronological picture of what has 
been assumed to be the movements of the pickerel. 

Dalton and Cat lakes provided us with some very interesting 
information on the angling success of small lakes that are typical 
for the area. Both showed a fishing success of almost one and three 
quarter fish per rod-hour, which is good fishing by most standards* 
Dalton was particularly productive of smallmouth bass with a seasonal 
success of 1.64 smallmouth bass per rod-hour. Both lakes produced 
more fish per angler than did the French. 

Over the past few years with the increase in sport angling 
there has been a growing suspicion among anglers that commercial fish- 
erman operating in Georgian Bay at the mouth of the French are compet- 
ing directly with the sportsmen for pickerel. If this hypothesis is 
true for the Main French then the pickerel must travel past what the 
author considers are impassible barriers. Map 1 shows these barriers, 
Recollet Falls to the west provides the most imposing restriction on 
the movement of fish with a vertical drop of more than seven feet. 

Summary 

1. 4,957 fish of five species (yellow pickerel, smallmouth bass, 
yellow perch, northern pike and maskinonge) were caught in the 
Main French River between Parisien Rapids and Flat Rapids by 

£64 anglers during the 52 day census period. 

2. 4,032 hours of angling were logged by the interviewed fish- 
ermen for an average of 4«7 hours per sportsman. 

3» The average catch was 5«7 fish per angler and the average 
fishing success was about 1.25 fish per rod-hour. 

4. The average fishing success for pickerel was .57 pickerel 
per rod-hour, while the average for smallmouth bass was .46 bass 
per rod-hour - both high by this Districts standards. 

5» Dalton and Cat lakes both provided excellent fishing success 
with a reported 1.72 fish per rod-hour. 

60 The bass fishing success of Dalton Lake was three and one 
half times that of the Main French River. 

7» The seasonal changes in the catch per unit effort statistics 
for pickerel paralleled the changes in the Mindemoya success. 

$• Seasonal changes in the bass catch per unit effort re- 
sembles the changes experienced in South Baymouth, but deviates 
slightly from that noted in McGregor Bay. 



- 50 - 

9. Maskinonge fishing for this portion of the French was about 
50 per cent of the normal. 

10. The data presented in this report may be higher than would 
normally be expected inasmuch as the anglers interviewed were 
guided by some of the best guides in the area. 

11. It is the author* s opinion that the fish taken in the 
Main French are not from the same population taken by sportsmen 
and commercial fishermen in Georgian Bay. 

Acknowledgment 

The author would like to express his gratitude to Mr. Cam 
Shortts and the merry men of Lift-the-Latch Lodge who contributed 
considerably to the collection of the data for this paper. 

References 

Silva, H. R. and D. I. Gillespie, I960. The warm water sports 

fishery of McGregor Bay. Resource Management Report No. 
60, pp. 32-60. 

Zimmerman, F. A., 1961. Some observations on the quality of angling 

in Lake Mindemoya, Manitoulin Island, 1961. District Report 
(unpublished) . 



- 51 - 

TABLE 1 - WEEKLY AND MONTHLY SUMMATION OF 
FRENCH RIVER CATCH DATA BY SPECIES 



Period 
of 


Yellow 
Pickerel 


S.M. 
Bass 


Yellow 
Perch 


Northern 
Pike 


Maskin- 
onge 


Total 
Fish 


July 17 

24 
31 


40 

40 
120 


70 

24 
45 


13 
8 

33 


13 

8 

28 


1 
2 


136 

81 

228 


July Total 


(200) 


(139) 


(54) 


(49) 


(3) 


(445) 


Aug. 7 
14 
21 

2a 


153 
168 
238 


246 
221 
195 


110 

13 
11 


99 
103 

98 


2 


608 
505 
544 


Aug. Total 


(559) 


(662) 


(134) 


(300) 


(2) 


(1,657) 


Sept. 4 
11 
IS 
25 


95 
229 
434 
263 


72 
164 
425 
147 


18 

2 

16 

6 


32 

24 

124 

18 


2 

2 

4 


219 

419 

1,001 

438 


Sept. Total 


(1,021) 


(808) 


(42) 


(198) 


(8) 


(2,077) 


Oct. 2 


(538) 


(231) 


- 


(9) 


i 


(778) 


SEASON TOTAL 


(2,318) 


(1,840) 


(230) 


(556) 


(13) 


(4,957) 



- 52 - 



TABLE 2 - FISHING EFFORT AND SUCCESS 
AND ANGLING CENSUS DAYS 



— - - - -~— " ~ ~ ~~~ — — — - 

Period 
of 


Anglers 


Hours 


Fish/ 
Rod-Hour 


Fish/ 

Angler 


Fishing 

Effort 

(hours) 


Fishing 
Days 


July 17 
24 
31 


29 
11 

71 


140 

50 

229 


.97 
lo62 
1.00 


4.69 
7.36 
3.21 


4.33 
4.55 
3.23 


2 
1 
2 


July Totals 


(111) 


(419) 


(1.06) 


(4.01) 


(3-77) 


(5) 


Aug, 7 
14 
21 
23 


93 

103 
95 


476 
509 
431 


1.23 

.99 

1.13 


6.20 
4.90 
5.73 


4.36 
4.94 
5.06 


7 
7 
7 


Aug, Totals 


(296) 


(1,466) 


(1.13) 


(5.60) 


(4-95) 


(21) 


Sept. 4 
11 
18 
25 


32 

37 

124 

71 


193 
407 
733 
406 


1.13 
1.03 
1.37 
1.03 


6.34 
4.32 
3.07 
6.17 


6.03 
4.69 
5.91 
5.72 


3 

7 
6 
4 


Sept. Totals 


(3H) 


(1,739) 


(1.19) 


(6.61) 


(5.54) 


(20) 


Oct. 2 


(143) 


(403) 


(1.9D 


(5.44) 


(2.35) 


(6) 


SEASON TOTALS 


(364) 


(4,032) 


(1.23) 


(5.74) 


(4.67) 


(52) 



- 53 - 

TABLE 3 - CREEL DATA - DALTON AND CAT LAKES 



Lake 

Name 


SoM. 
Bass 


Yellow 
Perch 


Northern 
Pike 


Maskin- 
onge 


Total 
Fish 


Dalton 
Cat 


123 
35 


6 
2 


73 


2 


134 
162 



Lake 

Name 


Anglers 


Hours 


Fish/ 
Rod- 
Hour 


Fish/ 

Angler 


Fish- 
ing 
Effort 




Fishing 
Days 


Dalton 
Cat 


16 
22 


73 
94 


1.72 

1,72 

■ 


3.33 
7.26 


4.33 
4.27 


5 
13 



- 54 - 
TABLE 4 - CATCH PER UNIT EFFORT 
DATA MAIN FRENCH RIVER, 1961 



Period 

of 


Yellow 
Pickerel 


Smallmouth 
Bass 


July 17 
24 
31 

July Total: 

Aug. 7 
14 
21 
28 

Aug. Total: 

Sept, 4 
11 
18 
25 

Sept. Total: 
Oct. 2 


.29 
.80 
.52 

(.48) 

.32 
.33 
.49 

(.38) 

.49 
• 56 
.59 
.65 

(.59) 

(1.32) 


.50 
48 
e 20 

(.33) 

.52 

.43 
.41 

(.45) 

.37 
.40 
.58 
.36 

(.46) 

(.57) 


SEASON TOTAL: 


(.57) 


(.46) 



TABLE 5 - COMPARATIVE TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF 
CATCH PER UNIT EFFORT, LAKE MINDEMOYA 
- FRENCH RIVER PICKEREL, 1961 



1 

Period 
of 


Lake 
Mindemoya 


French River 


July 17 
24 
31 

Aug. 7 
14 
21 
28 

Sept, 4 
11 
18 
25 

Oct, 2 


.37 
.39 
.36 

.26 
.29 
.36 
.31 

,22 
.11 
.22 

.20 

.32 


.29 
.80 
.52 

.32 
.33 
.49 

.49 
.56 
.59 
.65 

1.32 


SEASON TOTAL: 


(.38) 


(.57) 







THE 


- 55 - 

ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 

FRENCH RIVER - DAILY CREEL CENSUS 






"LODGE OR 
INDIVIDUAL 

.. 

DATE: 


NO. OF FISH REPORTED 


EFFORT 




RESIDENT 
PICKEREL 


NON-RESIDENT 
PICKEREL 


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- 56 - 



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- 57 - 

TAXONOMY OF LAKE NIPISSING PIKE-PERCH 

by 
Wilson Sinclair 
Conservation Officer 
Parry Sound District 

Abstract 

Some doubt has arisen concerning the variety of pike- 
perch being taken by anglers from Lake Nipissingo 
This has posed a potential law enforcement problem. 
Work done in 1961 indicates that the majority of these 
pike-perch do not fit the Hubbs and Lagler description 
of blue or yellow pike-percho While all the pike- 
perch have been treated as yellow pike-perch 
( Stizostedion vitreum vitreum ) for the purposes of the 
Fishery Regulations, features such as body colouration 
and small average size suggest that some of them are 
blue pike-perch (S. vitreum glaucum ) . Harkness 
(1) stated in 1936 that the original population of the 
lake consisted of blue pike-perch, but introduced 
yellow pike-perch were supplanting the native variety. 
The possible continued presence of blues presented 
an enforcement problem in that the catch and 
possession limit on blues, is 35 fish while the limit 
on yellow is six fish. The closed season in April and 
May in Lake Nipissing applies only to yellows. In an 
effort to answer the question regarding species this 
investigation was undertaken. It is recommended that 
the Fishery Regulations be changed to treat blue pike- 
perch the same as yellow pike-perch in Lake Nipissing, 



The Investigation 

During the summer of 1961 a total of 51 pike-perch taken 
by anglers in Lake Nipissing (including the French River above 
Chaudierre dam) were examined for identification features. The fish 
were measured for total length, and comparisons of inter-orbital 
width and orbital length were made. The body and fin colouring 
were noted. Lengths ranged from 11 inches to 20 inches, the average 
being 16.6 inches. 

Inter-orbital Width and Orbital Length 

Table 1 illustrates graphically the distribution of fish 
in this respect. The minimum ratio was 1.31 and the maximum was 
2,0, The average for 51 fish was I.56. According to Hubbs and 
Lagler (2) the bony inter-orbital width measures 1.1 to 1.4 in the 
length of the orbit in young and half-grown yellow pike-perch to 
about equal to the orbit in adults, while for blue pike-perch the 
ratio measures 1.4 to 2,0 times the length of the orbit. In the sample 
from Lake Nipissing only three fish showed inter-orbital width versus 
orbital length ratios under 1.4o On this basis alone, the majority of 



- 58 - 

the pike-perch examined during the study had this characteristic in 
agreement with the Hubbs and Lagler definition of blue pike-perch. 

Body Colouring 

Thirty-seven of the fifty-one fish were judged to have 
body colour characteristics most resembling that of yellow pike- 
perch, while the remainder had colour characteristics suggestive 
of the blue variety. There appeared to be a grading-in of colour, 
and it was difficult to decide in many cases. It is worth noting 
that one of the most "blue" specimens had a relatively low orbital 
ratio (1.43) • 

Lower Fin Colouring 

According to Hubbs and Lagler (2) the lower fins of yellow 
pike-perch show yellowish colouring, while those of the blue are 
bluisho Only one specimen was judged to have bluish fins; the 
remainder being yellowish. 

Discussion 

Solely on the basis of orbital ratio, it would appear 
that this pike-perch population is mostly made up of blue pike- 
perch. The less reliable characteristic (involving opinion) of 
colouration, indicates a predominence of yellows. Perhaps hybri- 
dization has taken place. 

Lake Nipissing pike-perch are known to spawn extensively 
on rocky beaches, as well as in streams. It would be advisable to 
carry this investigation further by comparing characteristics of 
fish spawning on beaches with those spawning in streams to see if 
distinct groups of pike-perch can be isolated at this point. 

Information collected so far indicates that the regulations 
concerning the taking of pike-perch should be changed to take into 
account the possible presence of the blue pike-perch in Lak& 
Nipissingo The angler at large is not yet aware of the fact that 
he might lawfully take 35 pike-perch in a day the year round from 
this lake Reduction of the daily limit on the combined varieties 
of pike-perch in Lake Nipissing to six fish, and placing a closed 
season on blues in the spring, would not at this time meet with any 
resistance from anglers. 

Conclusion 

The pike-perch present in Lake Nipissing, are not in 
complete accord with the definitions for the subspecies vitreum 
and glaucum, as defined in standard reference work (Fishes of the 
Great Lakes Region, by Hubbs and Lagler) . 

Literature Cited 

(1) Harkness, W. J. K., 1936. 

Biological Study of Lake Nipissing, 

Printed in "North 3ay Nugget", February 21, 1936, 



- 59 - 

(2) Hubbs, Carl L„, and Karl F. Lagler, 1949. 
Fishes of the Great Lakes Region. 

C. W. Douglas provided technical guidance in this 
investigation. 



Footnote; In 1961, after Sinclair had completed the measurements 
of most of his series of pike-perch, a rough draft of his report 
was sent to main office together with recommendations concerning 
amendment to the sections of the Ontario Fishery Regulations 
concerning the catch limits of blue and yellow pickerel . From 
this emanated Section IS (j) which now reads "six yellow pickerel, 
six blue pickerel or six of any combination thereof", and completely 
removes the difficulty heretofore presented by the difficulty in 
distinguishing the blue and yellow races of this species, a subject 
of perennial complaint in many areas through the Province <> 

(Carman W„ Douglas, Sept. 7/62 



- 60 - 



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- 61 - 

SOME OBSERVATIONS ON A WINTER CREEL CENSUS 
ON TWO LAKES IN THE KILLARNEY AREA, 1962 

by 
L. E. Drolet 
Conservation Officer, Sudbury District 

Abstract 

A creel census was carried out during the winter 
months on Mahzenazing and Killarney Lakes. A total 
of 1$7 anglers checked on Mahzenazing Lake had 
fished for 1,041 hours and taken 5$ yellow perch, 
9& northern pike and 11 yellow pickerel for a catch 
per unit effort of 16 fish per 100 rod-hours. Sixty- 
one fishermen checked on Killarney Lake had fished 
for 2#4 hours and taken 24 lake trout for a C.U.E. 
of 9 fish per 100 rod-hours. The average size 
of the lake trout was two pounds. 



Introduction 

With the opening of the Killarney Road (Highway #637) in 
the fall of 1961 several new lakes were made accessible to the 
average sportsman of Sudbury District. To measure the angling 
pressure and success of two lakes, that the writer thought might 
be opened by this new access route, a creel census was carried 
out for most of the winter months when travel conditions permitted. 

The Lakes 

Map 1 shows the location of the two lakes. Mahzenazing 
Lake is fed from Tyson Lake to the north by the west branch of 
the Mahzenazing River. The water level of this lake is controlled 
by a coffer dam, built in the spring of 1961, at the south end 
of the lake. This impoundment has raised the lake*s level seven 
feet and it is the writer* s opinion that the resultant angling 
success has decreased. 

Mahzenazing Lake might be described as a typical entrophic 
lake with deep cold water being almost totally absent. Yellow perch, 
northern pike, pickerel, largemouth bass and smallmouth bass are 
the fish species known to be present. 

Access to the lake was facilitated in the late fall and 
early winter by a gravel road being kept open by a construction 
firm until February 6th, 1962. After this date, travel was limited 
to the most ardent sportsmen, who were willing to snowshoe or ski 
at least a mile to the lake. 

Killarney Lake is one of the District's most beautiful 
lakes with great towering hills surrounding most of its shores. 
Typically an oligotrophic lake, it is very deep with relatively 
few large aquatic plants present. It is known to maintain 
populations of lake trout, herring, ling, smallmouth bass and 
yellow perch. 



- 62 - 

Access to this lake is limited by a walk of almost three 
and one half miles over rugged terrain. The winter sportsmen on 
Killarney Lake are typically residents of the town of Killarney 
and occasionally visiting anglers from the city of Sudbury. 

Census Methods 

Mahzenazing Lake was selected as it was only 22 miles 
from the writer's headquarters and could be checked almost daily 
or whenever parked cars or tracks suggested the lake was being 
fished. Killarney Lake, because of its relative inaccessibility, 
was checked whenever tracks indicated the presence of sportsmen. 
This was chiefly on week-ends. 

The anglers were generally interviewed in the late 
afternoon or as they left the lake at which time their creel data 
were recorded in a diary. This information was transferred to a 
creel form that will be used during the summer months to record 
the catches of anglers using Georgian Bay waters between Killarney 
and Collin's Inlet. 

Survey Results 

Mahzenazing Lake 

187 anglers were checked on this lake in the period 
January 15th to March 24th, 1962. While fishing 1,041 hours these 
anglers caught 167 fish made up of 5# yellow perch, 98 northern 
pike and 11 yellow pickerel. 

The data were compiled on a semi-monthly basis and appear 
in Table 1. 67 per cent of the anglers checked were interviewed 
in the first 19 days of the creel period. This was due to the 
closing of the gravel road and the deep snow impeding the access 
of the sportsmen. 

The average season catch per unit effort was 16 fish 
per 100 rod-hours. Table 1 in addition to the catch data shows 
the seasonal changes in the C.U.E. 

Information was recorded on the quality of the catch. 
The yellow perch caught were 4-6" in length; the northern pike 
ranged between one pound and eight pounds, with a two pound fish 
being the modal size. The yellow pickerel showed a range of one and 
one-half pound to six pounds with the modal size being three pounds. 

The quality of the visiting fishermen on Mahzenazing 
Lake is interesting. Although the fish were the primary purpose 
for them visiting the lake, the opportunity to get out of the 
city must have been an important consideration. While access 
to the lake was good, many of the visiting groups consisted of 
families, ranging from the parents down to infants. Later on in 
the season, when deep snow blocked the road, the anglers were 
chiefly men, occasionally accompanied by their sons. 






- 63 - 

Local residents from the town of Killarney ignored this 
lake and preferred to do their fishing in more inaccessible lakes 
where they took lake trout. The increase in the sportsmen pressure 
has also been ignored by the residents, as there are very few camp 
operators among them and they assume that visitors will seldom 
visit the relatively inaccessible lakes they fish and complete 
with them. 

Killarney Lake 

Twenty-four lake trout ranging in size from one-half 

a pound to 3i pounds were caught by 61 fisherman, fishing 2&4 

hours. This provided an average season catch per unit effort of 

9 lake trout per 100 rod-hours. The modal size of the lake trout 
caught was two pounds . 

Of the 24 trout caught, only one was taken on a live 
minnow and three were taken on artificial bait. The balance were 
caught by bobbing with pieces of mature sucker as bait. 

The census on Killarney Lake, as previously pointed out, 
was conducted whenever anglers were believed to be present on the 
lake. It is the writer v s opinion that the census covered almost 
100 per cent of the angling pressure. Of the 61 anglers checked, 
#5 per cent were residents of the town of Killarney. 

Weather conditions limited the movements of the anglers 
on Killarney Lake. Deep snow and slush restricted travel to the 
south end of the lake which is not recognized as the best fishing 
area. Success in 1962, while only a subjective appraisal by the 
writer appeared to be considerably lower than that of previous 
years. 

Summary 

1. A creel census was carried out during the winter months of 
1962 on Mahzenazing and Killarney Lakes. 

2. One hundred and eighty- seven anglers were checked on Mahzenaz- 
ing Lake and 61 on Killarney Lake . 

3. Some 167 fish (yellow perch, northern pike and yellow pickerel) 
were taken by the anglers using Mahzenazing Lake and 24 lake 
trout were taken from Killarney Lake . 

4. The catch per unit effort (C.U.E.) for Mahzenazing was 16 fish 
(of all species) per 100 rod-hours, while for Killarney Lake 
it was nine lake trout per 100 rod-hours. 

5. The fishermen using Mahzenazing Lake (at least when access 
is good) were family men, who took along their families for 
a days outing. Local residents made up the largest part of 
the sportsmen using Killarney Lake. 

6. The heavy influx of sportsmen into the Killarney area with 
the opening of Highway #637 has had no apparent effect on the 
attitudes of the local residents. 



- 64 - 

7. No conclusions on the quality of angling have been drawn, as 
similar creel censuses, with the exception of D. R. Hughson 9 s 
work on Lake Penage, have not been conducted in other district 
lakes. 



- 65 - 
TABLE 1 - MAHZENAZING LAKE WINTER CREEL DATA, 1962 



Date 


Yellow 
Perch 


North. 
Pike 


Yellow 
Pickerel 


Total 
Fish 


Angler 


Hours 


Pish/ 

100 
Rd.Hrs. 


Jan. 15-31 


17 


51 


7 


75 


111 


631 


12 


Feb. 1-15 


11 


16 


3 


30 


31 


181 


16 


Feb. 16-28 


23 


17 


1 


41 


30 


147 


28 


Mar. 1-15 


5 


10 


- 


15 


9 


51 


29 


Mar. 16-31 


2 


4 


- 


6 


6 


31 


19 


TOTALS : 


53 


98 


11 


167 


187 


1,041 


16 



TABLE 2 - KILLARNEY LAKE WINTER CREEL DATA, 1962 



Date 


Lake Trout 


Anglers 


Hours 


Fish/100 
Rod Hours 


January 1-15 


4 


4 


16 


25 


h 15-31 


4 


13 


60 


7 


February 1-15 


5 


18 


89 


6 


" 16-28 


3 


16 


75 


4 


March 1-15 


7 


4 


23 


30 


March 16-31 


1 


6 


21 


5 


TOTALS : 


24 


61 


284 


9